The group are actively engaged in the engineering of bioelectronic interfaces through the uses of specific interfacial chemistry and / or protein chemistry (genetic or otherwise). In some cases this is specifically to maxmise the electronic coupling to underlying transducing surfaces. In others, such tools are utilised in establishing highly specific diagnostic assays and maximising the binding interactions with targer proteins.
Receptive interfaces have ranged from those based on antibodies and functionalised nucleic acids to those based on peptide inserts into scaffolds (aptamers or Affimers).
To date exceptionally effective assays for CRP, insulin, and a Parkinsons marker have been established.
In some work, this control has been subsequently utilised in supporting analyses at molecular scales. This has involved, for example, the coupling of optical output to redox state (the imaging of electrochemistry), resonant tunnelling (electrochemical STM), photoinduced proton pumping and, more recently, the density of state mapping by capacitative spectroscopy.
Examples: Anal. Chem., 2007, 79, 1089-1096, Anal. Chem., 2009, 81, 9, 3314-3320, Anal. Chem., 2010, 82, 2010, 3531-3536, Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 15, 6553-6560, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2013, 39, 94-98, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2013, 39, 21-25, Chemical Science, 2012, 3 (12), 3468 – 3473, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 4129-4134, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013, 42, 13, 5944-5962, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2013, 50, 437-440.